In still others the outcome may be uncertain, but because selection works on probabilities, he may play the odds, say, taking a one-in-ten chance of getting killed in a raid that promises a one-in-two chance of abducting a few extra wives.
Many group selectionists assume that human armed conflict has been a crucible for the evolution of self-sacrifice, like those in insect soldier castes. When is self-sacrifice adaptive? Cognitive Comparing apples to oranges essay for social exchange. Keeps getting nicer over time and easily leaves the Classic Cask behind now.
The optimum strategy for the group is for everyone to contribute the maximum; the optimum strategy for the individual is to be a free rider and stint on his public contribution, thereby enjoying both the group dividend andhis private stash. Modern advocates of group selection don't deny that selection acts on individual organisms; they only wish to add that it acts on higher-level aggregates, particularly groups of organisms, as well.
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Choose the absolute adjective in each group of sentences: I don't think it makes sense to conceive of groups of organisms in particular, human societies as sitting at the top of a fractal hierarchy with genes at the bottom, with natural selection applying to each level in parallel ways.
Studies of the mindset of soldierly duty shows that the psychology is one of fictive kinship and reciprocal obligation within a small coalition of individual men, far more than loyalty to the superordinate group they are nominally fighting for.
The outcome of interest is the number of copies in a finite population. Only full-sibling families evolved eusociality. Let's take the concrete example of collective aggression.
My reading of the history of organized violence is that this is very far from the Comparing apples to oranges essay.
After many generations of replication, the replicators will show the appearance of design for effective replication, while in reality they have just accumulated the copying errors that had successful replication as their effect. The writer William Manchester, reminiscing about his service as a Marine in World War II, wrote of his platoonmates, "Those men on the line were my family, my home.
Since the gene-centered theory of insect eusociality cannot apply to humans, perhaps it is unnecessary to explain bees either. However, an earlier version of the concept can be traced back to the English economist Robert Torrens and his book The Budget: The Laspeyre export index is the current value of the base period exports divided by the base period value of the base period exports.
Cars today are equipped with steel-belted radials because they outcompeted polyester-belted tires in a process of tire selection. I have seen "group selection" used as a loose synonym for the evolution of organisms that live in groups, and for any competition among groups, such as human warfare.
The NFSS asked respondents to identify their sexual orientation, and found that children of MLRs were more open to same-sex romantic relationships, bisexuality, and asexuality, than any other group. What we don't expect to see is the evolution of an innate tendency among individualsto predictably sacrifice their expected interests for the interests of the group—to cheerfully volunteer to serve as a galley slave, a human shield, or cannon fodder.
So, for instance, when the study finds that children who had a parent in a same-sex romantic relationship are much more likely to suffer from depression as young adults than the children who came from intact biological families, it does not claim that the gay parent was the cause of the depression in his or her child, but simply that such children on average had more depression, for reasons unidentified by the study.
Any residue of pure altruism can be explained by the assumption that people's cooperative intuitions have been shaped in a world in which neither anonymity nor one-shot encounters can be guaranteed. They live in the brick house on the corner. It was the Roman Empire that took over most of the ancient world, not a group that splintered off from a group that splintered off from a group that splintered off from the Roman Empire, each baby Roman Empire very much like the parent Roman Empire except for a few random alterations, and the branch of progeny empires eventually outnumbering the others.
The same is true for less extreme sacrifices. A warrior may scare off a party of attackers and save the lives of his fellow villagers together with the lives of himself and his family. And Bibliarz and Stacey, There's no end to the possibilities for pointlessly redescribing ordinary cause-and-effect sequences using the verbiage of natural selection.
Damp wood and something slightly meaty ham. They fight for one another. To be sure, the annals of war contain tales of true heroism—the proverbial soldier falling on the live grenade to save his brothers in arms.
To be sure, if we go back to group selection as an explanation of group traits, particularly cultural ones, then it's easy to see how a group that successfully coerced or manipulated a renewable supply of its own members to launch suicide attacks might expand relative to other groups.
When this number is falling, the country is said to have "deteriorating terms of trade". Since economies typically export and import many goods, measuring the TOT requires defining price indices for exported and imported goods and comparing the two.
A vast amount of human altruism can be explained in this way. Until the Military Revolution of the 16th century, European states tended to fill their armies with marauding thugs, pardoned criminals, and paid mercenaries, while Islamic states often had military slave castes.
A vast amount of human altruism can be explained in this way. Nature,E5-E6. Despotism and differential reproduction.
These are impressive to a human observer, but they are not what selection, literally interpreted, brings about.Comparing The Creation Of The World - In The Bible’s creation story, God created Heaven, which is full of light and life, and Satan, the angel that rebelled, was cast into the lower parts of the earth, Hell, which is full of torment.
TIP Sheet WRITING A COMPARE/CONTRAST PAPER. A compare and contrast essay examines two or more topics (objects, people, or ideas, for example), comparing their. References.
L., Marks, “Same-sex parenting and children’s outcomes: A closer examination of the American Psychological Association’s brief on lesbian and gay parenting,” Social Science Research (), Adjectives are words that describe or modify other words, making your writing and speaking much more specific, and a whole lot more interesting.
The Corequisite Reform Movement: An Education Bait and Switch. Alexandros M. Goudas March Let me begin by stating unequivocally that I, along with many others in the field of postsecondary education, support the thoughtful and holistic implementation of the original Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC) Accelerated Learning Program model (ALP) as studied by the Community.
The Psychology of Security. I just posted a long essay (pdf available here) on my website, exploring how psychology can help explain the difference between the feeling of security and the reality of security.
We make security trade-offs, large and small, every day. We make them when we decide to lock our doors in the morning, when we .Download